Groupe Doo Wop US, les Cadillacs ont été formé en 1953 à Harlem sous le premier nom des Carnations. Il comprenait : Earl Carroll, Lavern Drake, James "Poppa" Clark, Johnny "Gus" Willingham et Bobby Phillips. La voix de basse était tenue par Earl Carroll qui deviendra ensuite, en 1958, membre des Coasters.

Earl Carroll, LaVerne Drake, and Robert Phillips were already singing together in the early '50s as the Carnations, whose lineup also included "Cub" Gaining. Carroll and Phillips were nearly as close as brothers, Carroll having been taken in by Phillips' family after the death of his own mother. The group — based in New York's Harlem in the area around 131st St. and Seventh and Eighth Avenues — had an energetic approach to music, but somewhat threadbare harmonies, and they were popular at dances held at the local public school they all attended. Their main influence was the Orioles, whose slow romantic numbers went over very well with the group members and the audiences of the period. Carroll's own musical roots included gospel, specifically the Five Blind Boys, the Swanee Quintet, and the Soul Stirrers, but also R&B vocal outfits such as the Clovers, the Ravens, the Swallows, and the Five Keys.
The Carnations were heard in a performance at Public School 43 by Lover Patterson, a one-time associate of the Orioles who had organized a group called the Five Crowns (whose 1958-era membership would become the new Drifters, of "There Goes My Baby" fame), who was impressed enough with their singing to introduce the group to Esther Navarro, a secretary for the Shaw Artist Agency who also wrote songs.
The audition itself brought about changes in the Carnations' lineup. Baritone Bobby Phillips wanted to switch to bass, partly to see if the novelty value of a 5' 4" bass singer would have some value (most basses were big guys), but Cub Gaining didn't like the idea and quit before the audition. Patterson replaced him with James "Poppa" Clark of the Five Crowns and Johnny "Gus" Willingham. It was this group — Earl Carroll (lead tenor), LaVerne Drake (tenor), James Clark (tenor), Johnny Willingham (baritone), and Bobby Phillips (bass) — that auditioned for Navarro. They were duly signed but had to give up their name, as the Carnations was already being used by a professional outfit. The Cadillacs was chosen for its association with automotive elegance and to separate the group from the spate of bird and flower names that were common among singing groups.
The group brought a pair of songs, Navarro's "Gloria" and Patterson's "I Wonder Why," to Jubilee Records, an independent outfit owned by former bandleader Jerry Blaine. Their first single was in stores by the end of July 1954, and it proved to be a regional success, with strong sales on the East Coast from Baltimore to Boston, especially (no surprise) in New York. Patterson's more up-tempo "I Wonder Why" had more success than the more restrained and romantic "Gloria." By the time of the release of the group's second single, "Wishing Well," issued later that summer, the lineup had changed, with James Clark and Johnny Willingham replaced by baritone Earl Wade and tenor Charles "Buddy" Brooks.
The group experienced modest success during the latter part of 1954 and early 1955, and then they had their breakthrough record, "Speedo." There have been several stories associated with the origins of the song, all of which surround Earl Carroll's attributes: Carroll has claimed that it originated with a nickname he got as a child, but also said that the beat and background were influenced by the group's appreciation of a Regals song called "Got the Water Boiling." Esther Navarro, whose name is signed to the song as writer, claimed at the time that it derived from Carroll's derisive nickname "Speedy," earned by his slow-moving demeanor; she claimed that he said to her, "They often call me Speedy but my real name is Mr. Earl."
The song was recorded in September of 1955, and released in October of that year. It became a monster hit, but only after laying dormant for weeks. The turning point came when Cleveland-based disc jockey Alan Freed booked the group onto his Christmas show at the Academy of Music. The group by that time was completely professional, and had added dance routines choreographed by Cholly Atkins, who later trained most of the Motown acts in their stage presentations. The group swept the board during the two weeks of appearances in the Freed show, which, itself was a major turning point in the history of rock & roll. There had been showcases of that kind going on for several years, but mostly before black audiences; the Freed show broke the theater's box-office record, and in the process drew in a major contingent of white teenagers.
"Speedo" finally broke out in early December, and it entered the Billboard pop charts before it reached the R&B charts, something that had never happened before with an R&B single. The music industry began taking notice not only of this phenomenon, but also of the Cadillacs. The song rode the charts for four months, well into 1956, by which time the Cadillacs were established as one of the top R&B groups in the country. They also had a membership change early in that year, with Jimmy Bailey replacing founding member LaVerne Drake. Their attempts at a follow-up hit failed despite some initial encouraging signs from the trade papers, but this didn't slow their momentum on-stage; they remained one of the most heavily and prominently booked groups among the package tours that were the norm, and the bookings were still good into the late winter of 1957.
Unfortunately, nothing was that straightforward for the group itself. At some point, they split with Esther Navarro, and the group also split into two rival sets of Cadillacs. Earl Carroll led the Original Cadillacs, as they became known — consisting of Carroll, Charles Brooks, Bobby Phillips, and Earl Wade — while Navarro had Jimmy Bailey leading Bobby Spencer, Bill Lindsay, and Waldo "Champ Rollow" Champen under the name the Cadillacs. The groups both continued recording, both on Jubilee (which was caught in the middle of the dispute), and effectively canceled each other out.
Navarro's Bailey-led Cadillacs (who only recorded once officially, doing "My Girlfriend" in May of 1957) went on the road in an abortive attempt to carry on, but they were pulled out of the late-1957 package tour before it was half over. By November of 1957, the two groups had made a sort of peace: Champ Rollow and Bill Lindsay were out, and Carroll, Bailey, Brooks, Phillips, and Wade were working together in the studio as the Cadillacs. Brooks was soon replaced by Bobby Spencer, but there were other changes as well: Earl Carroll was pushed into the background of the group's vocals by Jimmy Bailey and Bobby Spencer. Of course, it didn't matter that much, because in their search for a sound that would sell, the group had changed into a comedic doo wop outfit in the mold of the Coasters, specializing in humorous novelty numbers. They hardly resembled the outfit that Earl Carroll had co-founded in the early '50s.
The sad thing, in some respects, is that this worked. They were back on the national charts for the first time in over two years in October of 1958 with "Peek-A-Boo," a sort of "Yakety Yak"-type number that made the Top 40 and gave the group a new lease on life as a concert attraction. Having succeeded once with a comic novelty tune, they mined this vein again with a pair of singles, "Jay Walker" and "Please Mr. Johnson." Both were recorded early in 1959 and featured (in very effective performances) in the 1959 Alan Freed-starring jukebox classic Go Johnny Go, which also featured Jimmy Clanton, Sandy Stewart, Chuck Berry, Jackie Wilson, Eddie Cochran, Ritchie Valens, and Jo-Ann Campbell.
The group's string of hits had ended, however. Earl Carroll left the group that he had founded in 1959; the Cadillacs kept working for a few more years, recording unsuccessfully for a number of labels before packing it in during the early '60s. Carroll fared reasonably well, however, remaining in music and eventually joining the Coasters in 1961, where he remained for more than 20 years. He later re-formed the Cadillacs, with Bobby Phillips the only other veteran member of the group, and he kept the new group going throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, even doing a well-received comeback record early in the '90s.

http://www.history-of-rock.com/doo.htm

Talents : Earl Carrol : Lead - Lavern Drake : Tenor - James "Poppa" Clark : Tenor - Johnny "Gus" Willingham : Baritone - Bobby Phillips : Bass

Style musical : Doo Wop

http://youtu.be/4UaKo63_Q7Q

GLORIA (1954)

SPEEDO (1955)

MY GIRL FRIEND (1957)

THE BOOGIE MAN (1960)

Années en activité :

1910 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2000

DISCOGRAPHY

Singles

1954 SP JOSIE 765 (US) Gloria / I Wonder Why
1954 SP JOSIE 769 (US) Wishing Well / I Want To Know About Love
1955 SP JOSIE 773 (US) Sympathy / No Chance
1955 SP JOSIE 778 (US) Widow Lady / Down The Road
1955 SP JOSIE 785 (US) Speedo / Let Me Explain
1956 SP JOSIE 792 (US) Zoom / You Are
1956 SP JOSIE 798 (US) Betty My Love / Woe Is Me
1956 SP JOSIE 805 (US) The Girl I Love / That's All I Need
1956 SP JOSIE 807 (US) Shack-A-Doo / Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer
1957 SP JOSIE 812 (US) Sugar, Sugar / About That Gal Named Lou
1957 SP JOSIE 820 (US) Broken Heart / My Girl Friend
1957 SP JOSIE 821 (US) Lucy / Hurry Home
1957 SP JOSIE 829 (US) Buzz-Buzz-Buzz / Yes, Yes Baby
1958 SP JOSIE 836 (US) Speedo Is Back / A' Looka Here
1958 SP JOSIE 842 (US) I Want To Know / Holy Smoke Baby
1958 SP JOSIE 846 (US) Peek-A-Boo / Oh, Oh, Lolita
1959 SP JOSIE 857 (US) Copy Cat / Jay Walker
1959 SP JOSIE 861 (US) Cool It Fool / Please Mr. Johnson
1959 SP JOSIE 866 (US) Romeo / Always, My Darling
1959 SP JOSIE 870 (US) Bad Dan Mc Goon / Dumbell
1960 SP JOSIE 876 (US) SPEEDO & the CADILLACS - Tell Me Today / It's Love
1960 SP JOSIE 883 (US) That's Why / The Boogie Man
1961 SP SMASH 1712 (US) What You Bet / You Are To Blame
1961 SP MERCURY 71738 (US) Bobby RAY & The CADILLACS - I'm Willing / Thrill Me So
1962 SP CAPITOL 4925 (US) White Gardiena / Groovy Groovy Love
1963 SP CAPITOL 4935 (US) Bobby RAY & The CADILLACS - I Saw You / La Bomba
1963 SP ARTIC 101 (US) Fool / The Right Kind Of Lovin
1964 SP JOSIE 915 (US) I'll Never Let You Go / Wayward Wanderer
1964 SP LANA 119 (US) Gloria / Hay Bob Re Bob
1965 SP ROULETTE 4654 (US) Let's Get Together / She's My Connection
1972 SP POLYDOR 14031 (US) Deep In The Heart Of The Ghetto Pt.1 /Deep In The Heart Of The Ghetto Pt.1
197? SP VIRGO 6011 (US)

Speedo / The Girl I Love

1973 SP VIRGO 6027 (US) My Girl Friend / Gloria








Unissued Tracks

1954 JOSIE unissued Party For two
1954 JOSIE unissued Corn Whiskey
1956 JOSIE unissued Oh! Watcha do
1956 JOSIE unissued Don't Take Your Love From Me
1957 JOSIE unissued If You Want To Be A Woman Of Mine
1958 JOSIE unissued Jelly Bean
1958 JOSIE unissued It's Spring
1958 JOSIE unissued Great Googly Moo
1959 JOSIE unissued You're Not In Love With Me
1959 JOSIE unissued The Wow
1959 JOSIE unissued Frankenstein
1959 JOSIE unissued Your Heart Is So Blind
1959 JOSIE unissued I Want To Be Loved
1960 JOSIE unissued Louise
1960 JOSIE unissued I'm In love
1960 JOSIE unissued Rock 'n Roll Is Here To Stay
196? JOSIE unissued I'll Never Let You Go

Albums

1957 LP 12" JUBILEE JLP-1045 (US) THE FABULOUS CADILLACS - Zoom / I Wonder Why / Sympathy / Woe Is Me / That's All I Need / Wishing Well / Speedoo / Down The Road / You Are / The Girl I Love / No Chance / Sugar-Sugar
1959 LP 12" JUBILEE JLP-1089 (US) THE CRAZY CADILLACS - My Girl Friend / Broken Heart / Betty My Love / Shock-A-Doo / Gloria / Zoom- Boom-Zing / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Window Lady / Why / Carelessly / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Let Me Explain
1960 LP 12" JUBILEE JGM-1117 (US) THE CADILLACS MEET THE ORIOLES - Baby Please Don't Go (The ORIOLES) / Hurry Home / Hold Me Thrill Me Kiss Me (The ORIOLES) / Buzz Buzz Buzz / A Kiss And A Rose (The ORIOLES) / Lucy / Deacon Jones (The ORIOLES) / It's Love / I Don't Want To Take A Chance (The ORIOLES) / Let Me Down Easy / You Belong To Me (The ORIOLES) / C'Mon Home Baby
1962 LP 12" JUBILEE JGM-5009 (US) TWISTING WITH THE CADILLACS - Romeo / Speedo / Woe Is Me / Buzz Buzz Buzz / It's Love / I Wonder Why / Peek-A-Boo / Shock-A-Doo / Dum Dee Dum Dum / Still You Left Me Baby / Sugar Sugar / My Girl Friend
1983 LP 12" MURRAY HILL M6 1250 (US) THE BEST OF THE CADILLACS, VOLUME ONE - Betty My Love / I Wonder Why / Window Lady / Shock-A-Doo / Gloria / If You Want To Be A Woman Of Mine / I Want To Know About Love / Carelessly / Peek-A-Boo / Romeo / Buzz Buzz Buzz / My Girlfriend
1983 LP 12" MURRAY HILL M6 1269 (US) THE BEST OF THE CADILLACS, VOLUME TWO - Speedo / The Girl I Love / You Are / Zoom / Broken Heart / No Chance / Sympathy / Sugar Sugar / That's All I Need / Wishing Well / Oh Whatcha Do
198? LP 12" MURRAY HILL 4J/2907 (US) THE VERY BEST OF THE CADILLACS - Zoom / The Girl I Love / Peek-A-Boo / Woe Is Me / Sugar Sufar / No Chance / Gloria / My Girlfriend / Wishing Well / Down The Road / You Are / Zoom Boom Zing / Party For Two / Speedo
1984 LP 12" DR. HORSE 801 (SW) PLEASE, MR. JOHNSON - Speedoo / Gloria / I Want To Know About Love / Wishing Well / Let Me Explain / That's All I Need / Sympathy / Still You Left Me Baby / Cool It Fool / Holy Smoke Baby / Rudolph The Red Nosed Reindeer / I Want To Know / Please Mr Johnson / About The Gal Named Lou / Always My Darling / Copy Cat / Oh Oh Lolita / Tell Me Today / Jay Walker
1983 5 LP 12" MURRAY HILL M6 1285 (US) FOR COLLECTORS ONLY :
DISC 1 : Betty My Love / I Wonder Why / Window Lady / Shock-A-Doo / Gloria / If You Want To Be A Woman Of Mine / I Want To Know About Love / Carelessly / Peek-A-Boo / Romeo / Buzz Buzz Buzz / My Girlfriend
DISC 2 : Speedo / The Girl I Love / You Are / Zoom / Broken Heart / No Chance / Sympathy / Sugar Sugar / That's All I Need / Wishing Well / Oh Whatcha Do
DISC 3 : Let Me Explain / Why Why / Jelly Bean / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Woe Is Me / Don't Take Your Love From Me / Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer / About That Girl Named Lou / Tell Me Today / C'Mon Home Baby / Hurry Home / Lucy
DISC 4 : Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Zoom Boom Zing / Yea Yea Baby / Holy Smoke Baby / I Want You To Know / Still You Left Me Baby / It's Spring / Speedo Is Back / A Looka Here / Great Googly Moo / Copycat / Oh Oh Lolita
DISC 5 : Please Mr. Johnson / Cool It Fool / Jay Walker / Frankenstein / Ban Dan McGoon / I Want To Be Loved / I'm In Love / Louise / Rock 'n' Roll Is Here To Stay / Corn Whiskey / Party For Two / Dum De Dum Dum
04/1990 CD RHINO 70955 (US) THE BEST OF THE CADILLACS - Gloria / No Chance / Down The Road / Window Lady / Speedoo / Zoom / You Are / Woe Is Me / Betty My Love / Sugar-Sugar / My Girl Friend / Speedoo Is Back / Peek-A-Boo / Zoom-Boom-Zing / Please, Mr. Johnson / Romeo / Tell Me Today
11/1991 CD COLLECTABLES 5412 (US) THE CADILLACS MEET THE ORIOLES - Speedoo / Gloria / Zoom / Girl I Love / Sugar-Sugar / My Girlfriend / + The ORIOLES
02/1992 3 CD COLLECTABLES 8800 (US) THE CADILLACS FOR COLLECTORS ONLY :
CD 1 : Betty My Love / I Wonder Why? / Window Lady / Shock-A-Doo / Gloria / If You Want To Be A Woman Of Mind / I Want To Know About Love / Carelessly / Peek-A-Boo / Romeo / Buzz Buzz Buzz / My Girlfriend / Speedoo / Girl I Love / You Are / Zoom / Broken Heart / No Chance / Sympathy / Sugar-Sugar
CD 2 : (That's) All I Need / Down The Road / Wishing Well / Oh! Whatcha Do / Let Me Explain / Why / Jelly Bean / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Woe Is Me / Don't Take Your Love From Me / Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer / About That Girl Named Lou / Tell Me Today / C'mon Home Baby / Hurry Home / Lucy / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Zoom-Boom-Zing / Yea Yea Baby / Holy Smoke Baby
CD 3 : I Want You To Know / Still You Left Me Baby / It's Spring / Speedoo Is Back / Look Here / Great Googly Moo / Copycat / Oh, Oh, Lolita / Please Mr. Johnson / Cool It, Fool / Jay Walker / Frankenstein / Bad Dan McGoon / I Want To Be Loved / I'm In Love / Louise / Rock & Roll Is Here To Stay / Corn Whiskey / Party For Two / Dum Dee Dum Dum
05/1995 4 CD BEAR FAMILY BCD 15648 (DE) THE COMPLETE JOSIE SESSIONS :
CD 1 : Gloria / I Wonder Why / Wishing Well / Carelessly / I Want To Know About Love / No Chance / No Chance (alt.) / Sympathy / Sympathy (alt.) / Party For Two (alt.) / Party For Two / Corn Whiskey / Down The Road / Window Lady (alt.) / Window Lady / Speedo (alt.) / Speedo / Zoom Boom Zing / Let Me Explain (alt.) / Let Me Explain / You Are (version 1) / Zoom (version 3) / Zoom (version 3) (alt.) / Oh! Whatcha Do / Shock-A-Doo
CD 2 : Shock-A-Doo / Zoom (version 2) / Zoom (version 1) / You Are (version 2) / Why / Why (alt.) / (That's) All I Need (alt.) / (That's) All I Need / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Baby's Comin' Home To Me (alt.) / The Girl I Love (alt.) / The Girl I Love / Betty My Love (alt.) / Betty My Love / Woe Is Me (alt.) / Woe Is Me / Rudolph, The Red Nosed Reindeer (alt.) / Rudolph, The Red Nosed Reindeer / Don't Take Your Love From Me / If You Want To Be A Woman Of Mine / About That Girl Named Lou (alt.) / About That Girl Named Lou / Sugar Sugar (alt.) / Sugar Sugar / Broken Heart
CD 3 : C'mon Home Baby / Hurry Home / Lucy / From This Day On / My Girlfriend / My Girlfriend (undubbed) / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Buzz Buzz Buzz / Yea Yea Baby / Holy Smoke Baby / I Want You To Know / Ain't You Gonna / It's Spring / Speedo Is Back (alt.) / Speedo Is Back / A Looka Here / Great Googly Moo / Copycat / Oh Oh Lolita / Peek-A-Boo / Jelly Bean / Please Mr. Johnson (alt.) / Please Mr. Johnson / Your Heart Is So Blind / Your Heart Is So Blind (alt.) / Cool It, Fool (alt.) / Cool It, Fool
CD 4 : Jay Walker / Who Ya Gonna Kiss / The Vow / Naggity Nag / You're Not In Love With Me / Bad Dan McGoon / Romeo / Romeo (alt.) / Always My Darling / Always My Darling / Dumbell / Still You Left Me Baby / Dum Dee Dum Dum / Dum Dee Dum Dum (alt.) / Frankenstein / I Want To Be Loved / I'm In Love / Tell Me Today (alt.) / Tell Me Today / Let Me Down Easy / It's Love / That's Why / Louise / Rock & Roll Is Here To Stay / The Boogie Man / I'll Never Let You Go / The Wayward Wanderer
06/1996 CD REMEMBER 75038 (US) PEEK-A-BOO - Gloria / No Chance / Down The Road / Window Lady / Speedoo / Zoom / You Are / Woe Is Me? / Betty My Love / The Girl I Love / Sugar-Sugar / My Girl Friend / Peek-A-Boo / Let Me Explain / Sympathy / I Wonder Why? / Wishing Well
08/1998 CD WESTSIDE 528 (UK) THE FABULOUS CADILLACS - THE CRAZY CADILLACS - Zoom / I Wonder Why / Sympathy / Woe Is Me / That's All I Need / Wishing Well / Speedoo / Down The Road / You Are / The Girl I Love / No Chance / Sugar-Sugar / My Girl Friend / Broken Heart / Betty My Love / Shock-A-Doo / Gloria / Zoom- Boom-Zing / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Window Lady / Why / Carelessly / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Let Me Explain
2004 CD COLLECTABLES 7628 (US) THE FABULOUS CADILLACS - THE CRAZY CADILLACS - Zoom / I Wonder Why / Sympathy / Woe Is Me / That's All I Need / Wishing Well / Speedoo / Down The Road / You Are / The Girl I Love / No Chance / Sugar-Sugar / My Girl Friend / Broken Heart / Betty My Love / Shock-A-Doo / Gloria / Zoom- Boom-Zing / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Window Lady / Why / Carelessly / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Let Me Explain
03/2006 CD COLLECTABLES ? (US) SPEEDO - Speedoo / The Girl I Love / Woe Is Me / Down The Road / Gloria / You Are / I Wonder Why / Wishing Well / Zoom / Speedoo Is Back
2006 CD BROWNSVILLE ? (US) PINK RIDE - Zoom Boom Zing / Copy Cat / My Girlfriend / Gloria / Zoom / Speedo / Down The Road / Sugar Sugar / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Holy Smoke Baby / I Wonder Why / The Girl I Love / Broken Heart / Shock A Doo / Baby's Comin' Home / Dumbell / Peek A Boo
12/2008 CD BEAR FAMILY BCD 16281 (DE) ROCK - Speedoo / I Wonder Why / I Want To Know About Love / No Chance / Down The Road / Zoom Boom Zing / Shock-A-Doo / Zoom [version 2] / Why / Baby's Comin' Home To Me / Woe Is Me / Sugar Sugar / C'mon Home Baby / Lucy / My Girlfriend / Don't Be Mad With My Heart / Buzz Buzz Buzz / Yea Yea Baby / Holy Smoke Baby / Speedoo Is Back / A' Looka Here / Great Googly Moo / Copycat / Peek-A-Boo / Please Mr. Johnson / Cool It Fool / Jay Walker / Naggity Nag / Bad Dan McGoon / Romeo / Dumbell / Still You Left Me Baby / Dum Dee Dum Dum / Gloria
07/2009 CD COLLECTABLES 1372 (US) THE CADILLACS MEET THE CLEFTONES - Speedoo (CADILLACS) / The Girl I Love (CADILLACS) / Woe Is Me (CADILLACS) / Zoom (CADILLACS) / Gloria (CADILLACS) / Heart & Soul (CLEFTONES) / Can't We Be Sweethearts (CLEFTONES) / Little Girl Of Mine (CLEFTONES) / You Baby You (CLEFTONES) / Why Do You Do Me Like You Do (CLEFTONES)

© Rocky Productions 23/12/2011